A high speed railway won work with a line that curves and

The hidden cost of transport ‘megaprojects’

canada goose outlet houston Sitting in a train seat and watching the outside world whiz past, you unlikely to think about the sacrifices that were required in order to buy canada goose jacket cheap make your journey more convenient: a beloved building here, a cheap Canada Goose medieval graveyard there. canada goose outlet houston

canada goose outlet edmonton Yet it an unfortunate reality that engineers and planners must make tough decisions before expanding canada goose uk black friday a transport network. Figuring out what important buildings, archaeological artefacts and cultural heritage to save, what to excavate and what to demolish can be complex and fraught with controversy. canada goose outlet edmonton

canada goose outlet us These dilemmas have been brought into sharp focus by two of the UK ongoing transport megaprojects: Crossrail, a giant tunnel network beneath London, and HS2, which will link the capital to northern England by high speed rail. canada goose outlet us

canada goose outlet germany Crossrail, which is wrapping up its building phase now, is currently the largest construction scheme in Europe. The 73 mile (118km) line runs through the heart of London. That location doesn just entail grappling with the logistical issues provided by a densely packed urban environment like how to build around the infrastructure and transport links already in place. (In one particularly tricky section at Tottenham Court Road, for example, Crossrail was tunnelled between the London Underground Northern line and station leaving just 31in [80cm] of padding on either side). It also means dealing with more than 2,000 years worth of artefacts, buildings, even human burials. canada goose outlet germany

canada goose outlet store uk View image of Among the trickiest areas for Crossrail engineers canada goose outlet store uk

canada goose outlet store calgary Re routing to avoid a much loved building or archaeological site can be all but impossible. As Crossrail head archaeologist Jay Carver puts it: got to go from A to B, via the right places. It no good having a station out of town where no one can get to it. Speed, of course, is another issue. A high speed railway won work with a line that curves and wiggles all over the map. canada goose outlet store calgary

canada goose outlet parka Dig deep canada goose outlet parka

canada goose factory outlet vancouver While the Crossrail line runs deeper than the archaeological layer, the entrance shafts and stations do not. And moving a station slightly further north or west to avoid one site often would mean affecting another. canada goose factory outlet vancouver

canada goose outlet black friday sale One example was Crossrail Tottenham Court Road ticket hall in the West End of London, which had an added challenge: as a station interchange which had to link the Northern line and Crossrail underground, it had little scope to move. As a result, Crossrail demolished some canada goose uk shop buildings for the interchange including the much canada goose coats loved Astoria Theatre, a cinema turned concert venue built in 1927 that hosted headliners including Oasis, Nirvana and U2. canada goose outlet black friday sale

canada goose outlet orlando View image of Crowds gather outside of the now demolished Astoria Theatre canada goose outlet orlando

canada goose outlet locations in toronto The Astoria wasn a listed building, which made it more vulnerable. Still, Carver notes, most sites even for sites which are scheduled or protected by UK law, such as a scheduled monument or a listed building there canada goose uk outlet is always an opportunity to apply for the demolition of that asset. There a legal process you can go through. If you can justify the public good outweighs the heritage significance, whereas it has to be quite a strict weighting, then canada goose coats on sale you can demolish a protected asset. One protected building Crossrail demolished was the Grade II listed 96 Dean Street; like the rest, it first was investigated archaeologically and any outstanding architectural pieces, like staircases, went to a national art collection. canada goose outlet locations in toronto

buy canada goose uk For historic buildings which weren demolished, there were still concerns. Chief among them was whether vibrations from Crossrail 1,000 tonne, 495ft (150m) long tunnel boring machines (TBMs) might cause damage. buy canada goose uk

canada goose vest outlet View image of Engineers stand canadian goose jacket before a tunnel boring machine canada goose vest outlet

canada goose outlet ontario Delicate buildings were fitted with sensors to detect tiny movements, feeding information of any shaking back to a control room. of buildings were monitored like they were in intensive care, says Carver. The sensors didn turn up canada goose clearance any trouble, although at one house Soho Georgian era St Barnabas House workers removed a statue standing in the foyer during tunnelling, Canada Goose sale just in case. canada goose outlet ontario

canada goose outlet uk The parting memento the company is giving to engineers canada goose clearance sale shows just how integral that process became: the gift includes one of the now retired sensors. canada goose outlet uk

canada goose outlet near me Crossrail: The monster machines tunnelling beneath London As Crossrail, due to open in 2019, finishes up, eyes are turning to HS2, which will connect London to Birmingham in its first phase. canada goose outlet near me

goose outlet canada Since much of the line runs through rural England, demolishing or damaging buildings is less of an issue (though critics have objected to the risks to the rural landscape as well as potential noise). But the sheer length of the line whose 140 mile (225km) section from London to Birmingham is less cheap canada goose uk than half of the entire Y shaped route still encounters a myriad of important, and delicate, sites, ranging from 19th Century burial grounds canada goose factory sale to Iron Age earthworks. goose outlet canada

canada goose outlet online store View image of The old town of Amersham, Buckinghamshire canada goose outlet online store

canada goose outlet winnipeg Perhaps surprisingly, in some ways HS2 is at a disadvantage compared to Crossrail. When determining which sites might be affected by this kind of project, the first step is an intensive review of maps and documentation records of which London, of course, has plenty. Even though that review was canada goose then followed by on the ground investigations, like drilling boreholes to extract archaeological layers or Canada Goose Online digging test pits, the amount of information archaeologists already know about London means not really going to find a surprise in terms of what you find where says Carver. canada goose outlet winnipeg

canada goose outlet england We do as much as possible before we even need to put a spade in the ground Helen Glass canada goose outlet england

canada goose outlet vip Much of the land around HS2, though, isn developed and hasn been investigated. So HS2 archaeologists are taking a different approach. canada goose outlet vip

canada goose outlet niagara falls done geophysical surveys, aerial Canada Goose Outlet photography, Lidar [remote sensing using light], says Helen Glass, HS2 head archaeologist. do as Canada Goose Jackets much as possible before we even need to put a spade in the ground. canada goose outlet niagara falls

canada goose parka outlet there are still always, as a detailed design progresses, gaps in knowledge to be filled in because obviously, before we got permission to build the railroad, we can excavate from London canada goose black friday sale to Birmingham in case rare cases, more information has led planners to change the route. An early scheme for HS2 had the line cutting close to a yet unexcavated ancient Roman villa, for example, and through the location of the Battle of Edgcote one of the bloodiest battles of the Wars of Roses and the possible home to a mass grave. uk canada goose outlet It also went through the grounds of the Georgian Edgcote House, used as a setting in the 1995 Canada Goose Coats On Sale television series of Pride and Prejudice. (Though the building is Grade I listed, its gardens and grounds are not). canada goose parka outlet

canada goose outlet reviews View image of Initial plans to route the HS2 line through the grounds of Edgcote House canada goose outlet reviews

canada goose jacket outlet uk After input from groups like Battlefields Trust and Historic England and finding that the Roman villa was larger than it previously seemed, HS2 route was moved further from Edgcote uk canada goose sites. The proposed line still clips the Canada Goose Outlet battlefield north east corner, says Simon Marsh, the research and threats coordinator of Battlefields Trust: seems to be considered one of those wholly exceptional situations on the basis that putting curves into high speed rail prevents it being high speed. But, he notes, archaeological work should be done buy canada goose jacket before the line is built so there will be an opportunity to test for any artefacts first. canada goose jacket outlet uk

canada goose outlet store toronto A more intractable challenge has been Grim Ditch in Buckinghamshire. Thought to date back nearly 3,000 years, it remains unclear if the ditch is a territory boundary or something else, not least of all because the ditch has never been excavated before. Because of its 18km length, no choice really but to Canada Goose online cut across it says Andy Brown, the planning director for Historic England in the South East. than trying to fight that because cutting across a long monument doesn do it grievous harm; it harmful, but not grievous it about seizing the opportunity to understand it how it was built, when it was built. Canada Goose Parka Excavation is an inherently destructive process. But of course it is one that can provide clues to an area history, people and culture. As the Museum of London exhibition Tunnel: The Archaeology of Crossrail shows, Crossrail uncovered everything from Tudor era bowling balls to skulls found, mysteriously, https://www.expeditionparkaoutlets.ca without their skeletons canada goose store canada goose outlet store toronto.

Leave a Reply